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Youth in Adult Criminal Courts

CONNECTICUT: A Study of Juvenile Transfers in Connecticut 1997 to 2002

This report examines the law changes regarding the transfer of juveniles to adult courts in Connecticut between 1997 and 2002.

CONNECTICUT: Automatic Transfer of Juveniles from Juvenile to Criminal Court

This brief examines the cases in which juveniles can be automatically transferred to adult court in Connecticut. In this state, juvenile courts have jurisdiction over children under age 18. The law requires the juvenile court to automatically transfer a child aged 15 through 17 to adult criminal court if he or she is charged with a capital felony committed prior to April 25, 2012; a class A felony; certain class B felonies; or arson murder.

FLORIDA: Direct Filing/Transfer of Juvenile Cases in Miami-Dade County, FL

The purpose of this project is two-fold. First, to research, review, and determine whether juvenile courts should retain jurisdiction over juvenile cases until the defendants reach age 18; and second, to establish whether there exists a disparity in the races of juveniles who have their cases directly filed or transferred to adult court. I selected Florida because Florida has been known for its record on juvenile direct files and has nationally held the lead for the number of juvenile cases transferred to criminal court. Beginning in the 1990s, many states made legislative changes to their juvenile laws to impose harsher sentences on juveniles who were charged with committing a series of crimes. These legislative changes were implemented as a deterrent to what everyone saw as an impending wave of violent crimes committed by youth.  

IDAHO: Ignoring Individualism: How a Disregard for Neuroscience and Supreme Court Precedent Make for Bad Policy in Idaho’s Mandatory Juvenile Transfer Law

This article evaluates the past and present factors for juveniles in the judicial system, and then considers the current Idaho legislation that mandates the transfer of juveniles into adult criminal court when they are accused of certain, enumerated crimes. 

ILLINOIS: Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission: Position on Automatic Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Court

This position statement emphasizes that juvenile court should be the default jurisdiction for all youth who are arrested, regardless of offense. Juvenile courts are designed to be rehabilitative and address youth needs individually, in a developmentally appropriate manner.  

INDIANA: Juvenile Court Judges’ Attitudes Toward Waiver Decisions in Indiana

There has been an increase in the number of state laws subjecting juvenile offenders to tougher penalties and reducing the age at which an offender may be waived to criminal court. Indiana is one of the 46 states in which the juvenile court judge maintains the discretion to waive juvenile offenders to criminal court. An instrument was developed to measure judges’ perceptions of what factors affect their waiver decisions.  

INDIANA: Kids in Adult Court

This presentation details the cases in which youth can end up in adult courts  in the state of Indiana. 

KENTUCKY: Trends in KY Youthful Offender Case Law from 2000-2013

This document reviews the significant Youthful Offender cases that occured in Kentucky between 2000 and 2013.

MARYLAND: Youth Charged as Adults: The Use and Outcomes of Transfer in Baltimore City

A 2010 study of Baltimore City’s use of automatic charging of youth within the adult system showed that only 10 percent of youth charged as adults were ever actually sentenced to the adult prison system.9 Conversely, 68 percent of youth had their cases dismissed or waived back into the juvenile court system.This Article shares the findings of a new study picking up where the 2010 study left off. Advocates for Children and Youth secured access to the court records of all youth granted reverse waiver between January 2009 and December 2011 in Baltimore City.

MINNESOTA: Juvenile Transfer: From "Get Better" to "Get Tough" and Where We Go from Here

This article explores the evolution of the juvenile justice system and the corresponding implications for youthful offenders and society at large.

MONTANA: Blended Sentencing in Montana: A New Way to Look at an Old Problem

This comment concludes that blended sentencing statutes, specifically Montana's Extended Juvenile Jurisdiction statute, are appropriate alternatives in addressing the problems associated with juvenile offenders. Blended sentencing offers peace of mind to citizens without losing sight of the fact that most delinquency problems can be adequately addressed within the juvenile system.

NEW JERSEY: Recommendations for the Reform of New Jersey’s Juvenile Waiver Laws

This research document uses scientific data to make recommendations for reform of the state's juvenile waiver laws. 

VIRGINIA: Laws Regarding the Prosecution of Juveniles As Adults

This document lists the laws and circunstamces under which a juvenile can be prosecuted as an adult in the state of Virginia. 

VIRGINIA: Process Evaluation of Recent Juvenile Transfer Statutes in Virginia

This report reviews the juvenile transfer statues in Virginia. 

VIRGINIA: Virginia State Crime Commission: Transfer and Certification of Juveniles

This presentation gives an overview of transfer and certification of juveniles as adults in the state of Virginia. 

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