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International Human Rights Day: Let's give our youth the human rights they deserve.

Friday, 09 December 2016 Posted in Across the Country

By Anne-Lise Vray, Communications Associate

Human Rights are defined by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) as “rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status.” Such rights are protected by the law, including international treaties like the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the US has signed in 1995 but failed to ratify since then.

Reflecting on the past and looking forward to the future

Wednesday, 30 November 2016 Posted in CFYJ Updates, Voices

By Jessica Sandoval and Roger Ghatt

As the Campaign for Youth Justice commemorates 10 years of advocating on behalf of youth, we are also reflective of our tenure at the Campaign.  Ten years ago we started from scratch, with not even an office to call home, but one thing has remained the same: we continue to be guided by urgency.  There are still too many youth transferred to and prosecuted in the adult criminal justice system.  We aspire to continue changing that.  We have made significant progress and are very proud of our contributions to the work; this year we have celebrated our 10 years of impact. It has been wonderful to be able to celebrate of all the reforms we have been a part of over the past 10 years. Now is a good time to acknowledge all of our accomplishments and to consider new strategies for continuing to build a movement that advances nationwide reforms in removing youth from the adult criminal justice system.

Since the campaign was launched, CFYJ has provided technical assistance to state-based advocates in most of the 50 states. More than 30 states have implemented over 50 policy reforms to remove youth from adult criminal courts and/or remove youth from adult jails and prisons.  States in every region of the country have undertaken reforms led by a bipartisan group of policymakers. The results of these efforts range from small, incremental steps to large-scale reforms. 

At the federal level, we advocated for the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA). We also advocated for U.S. Department of Justice recommendations to jurisdictions that they implement the Prison Rape Elimination Act’s (PREA) Youthful Inmate Standard by removing youth from adult jails and prisons. These two campaigns have been very successful. In the Spring of 2012, DOJ published PREA guidelines that recognize the inherent dangers of placing youth in adult facilities. Therefore the PREA Youth Inmate Standard (§115.14) requires that no youth under 18 can be placed in a housing unit where contact will occur with adult inmates in a common space, shower area, or sleeping quarters and requires agencies must do their best in order to avoid placing youth in isolation to comply with this provision. Then this fall, for the first time in 8 years, Congress introduced bi-partisan; bi cameral legislation for the reauthorization of JJDPA.  A bill that passed overwhelmingly in the U.S. House of Representatives, and has only one Senator holding up its passage. We strongly support the proposed reauthorization as it would strengthen the JJDPA guidelines to support state efforts to improve their juvenile justice systems, protect kids, and build safer communities

Through public opinion polling we’ve consistently seen that the public strongly supports these reforms, favoring rehabilitation and treatment for youth over punitive approaches that rely on incarceration and automatic prosecution in adult criminal court.

With states moving forward and public opinion aligned with our mission, we feel a continued sense of urgency to ensure that the momentum endures and more states implement policy reforms. This shift in public opinion supporting greater emphasis on rehabilitation and expanding the jurisdiction of juvenile courts for youth in also reflected in a growing consensus of diverse organizations ranging from stakeholder organizations, policy makers, faith-based groups and health and wellness organizations that have produced over 20 policy statements that support the Campaign’s mission.

Our job will be to accelerate the pace and to increase the scope of these reforms by utilizing all of our strategies and engaging constituencies in the movement.  We ask ourselves regularly, “Are we using every strategy and tactic possible to advance reforms?” and “Who else can we bring to the table?”  We will continue to challenge ourselves with these and other questions that will help us to achieve the outcomes of fulfilling our mission.

Our task will be to continue to build on the solid foundation the Campaign has laid until the work is done. Onward.

Jessica Sandoval is CFYJ’s Vice President and Roger Ghatt is CFYJ’s Chief Financial Officer. Both Sandoval and Ghatt are veteran staffers and have been with the organization for a decade.

STOP Solitary Confinement. STOP Inhumane Treatment - Lewisburg Call to Action

Jessica Sandoval Thursday, 10 November 2016 Posted in Take Action Now

Lewisburg A Call to Action

Within our criminal justice system, the degree of abuse is often not apparent. Many don’t realize what kinds of abuse incarcerated youth are subjected to. United States Penitentiary Lewisburg (USP) is no exception. The National Religious Campaign against Torture released a call to action after a series of stories emerged from USP Lewisburg. These stories were posted by The Marshall Project and NPR, and depict harrowing conditions and treatment of those who are incarcerated there.

Inmates recount consistent exposure to torture methods and unsafe living conditions. Within the prison inmates are exposed to double celled solitary confinement, restraints, and a lack of mental health treatment. In the report, men report stories of sharing a 6 by 10 foot room with another cell-mate. Many of those incarcerated, suffer from severe mental health issues or have been critically injured and even killed in clashes that erupt in the small cells. Furthermore, if an inmate resists a dangerous cell assignment, they are violently restrained. These cuffs generally cut off circulation and even make it difficult to breath. They are kept in uncomfortable positions for days resulting in the inability to use the toilet, drink and even feed themselves. They remain in these restraints until they capitulate and agree to live with a potentially dangerous cell mate.

No human being should have to live this way and the rampant abuse at Lewisburg has to stop. Call on Attorney General Loretta Lynch to investigate the practices used at Lewisburg. Your voice is needed to call attention to the importance of humane treatment within our criminal justice system.

Make your voice heard here:

Lewisburg Sample Social Media Posts:

  • The time is NOW to call on Attorney General Loretta Lynch to investigate abuse at Lewisburg! #justiceforall #takeaction
  • Promote humane treatment at Lewisburg and ask AG Loretta Lynch to look into treatment practices! #CFYJ
  •  STOP solitary confinement. STOP staff abuse. STOP inhumane treatment. Call on Loretta Lynch TODAY to investigate Lewisburg. #takeaction
  • YOU have the power to make a change. Make your voice heard and urge AG Loretta Lynch NOW to stop of the abuse at Lewisburg prison.

California Voters End “Direct File”

Brian Evans, CFYJ State Campaign Director Wednesday, 09 November 2016 Posted in Campaigns

By Brian Evans, State Campaign Director

Yesterday, outside the glare of the extremely contentious national election, California voters chose to end prosecutorial “direct file” by endorsing Prop 57. This result shows that the power of people to come together and do what is right for kids and communities is as strong as ever.

Prop 57 ends the “direct file” of juveniles, which is likely to keep many young people out of the adult system altogether. It also featured much discussed provisions for rehabilitation and early release of adults convicted of non-violent crimes. The vote was not close, with about 64% choosing to support the proposition.

Once this measure is implemented, California’s children will no longer be transferred to the adult criminal justice system by prosecutors without any judicial review.

This is a big win for youth justice, and California becomes the second state this year to end “direct file” by prosecutors (the Vermont legislature passed H. 95 earlier this year, eliminating the practice in that state). California voters apparently accepted the argument that, if children are to be tried in adult courts, it is vital that a neutral judge be empowered to make that decision, based on an independent review of the unique facts surrounding the case, and the child.

In twelve states, plus Washington, D.C., prosecutors still retain this discretionary power. Recent efforts in Florida and Colorado to restrict prosecutorial “direct file” have made significant progress, and it is to be hoped that Prop 57’s millions of “Yes” votes will inspire the other states to take the power to charge children as adults out of the hands of prosecutors.

Ten Years After the C4YJ Launches, We Are Not Done

Jaseon Ziedenberg, Research and Policy Director, The Justice Policy Institute Thursday, 03 November 2016 Posted in Take Action Now

Impact Webslider

By Jason Ziedenberg, Research and Policy Director, The Justice Policy Institute: a think tank that served as the Campaign for Youth Justice’s fiscal sponsor when the project was launched in 2006.  

Last year, I got one of those calls that all of us fear. A friend whose stepson faced transfer to the adult court called me, looking for advice on anything I might know about how a young person might be treated when they were on adult probation. The young person eventually accepted a plea that resulted their being convicted on an adult felony, and avoided being in jail, and placed on probation because of the zealous advocacy of their parents.

For me, that call underlined that as the Campaign for Youth Justice celebrates its ten year anniversary, our collective work to end the practice of prosecuting, sentencing, and incarcerating youth under the age of 18 in the adult criminal justice system is by no means finished.

My friend’s child lives in a state where prosecutors hold nearly all the power to determine whether or not a young person will get transferred to the adult system, and are compelled to plead guilty because they otherwise could get a seven-year mandatory minimum adult sentence. Even when a young person gets probation instead of a prison term, they can be saddled with a criminal record that can limit their chances of getting a job.

Since the Campaign for Youth Justice launched a decade ago, we have seen states move away from the policies that see young people end up in the adult system.

Illinois, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Louisiana and South Carolina recently changed their laws so that young people who once were destined for the adult criminal justice system are kept in the juvenile justice system. California is on the cusp of passing a ballot initiative that would mean, prosecutors no longer have the sole discretion to decide whether a youth should end up in the adult system.

These states have made these changes because they’ve read the research that shows, when young people are transferred to the adult system, they are more likely to end up reoffending than youth kept in the juvenile justice system, and are at greater risk of being harmed in an adult facility.

In spite of the research, the pace of change has been slower, elsewhere. New York and North Carolina commissioned reports, convened taskforces, studied the issue of transfer: both states have received expert advice on how they should Raise-the-Age, and haven’t yet made the switch.

There are still too many states that need to narrow the pathways that lead young people to be charged, convicted, jailed an imprisoned in the adult system. The Campaign’s work has meant that thousands of youth are safer, healthier and more likely to transition to adulthood than they would have been. Now, we just need to extend that same policy changes to more states, extend more opportunity to our kids, and ending the practice transferring youth to the adult system, right across the country.

Thank You for #YJAM 2016!

Tuesday, 01 November 2016 Posted in Campaigns

YJAM Thank You 11

As another Youth Justice Awareness Action Month draws to a close, there are at least two very important things left to do:

First: VOTE!
Organizing events, webinars, and online chats is vital for raising awareness and building support for positive changes to the way we approach youth justice, but on November 8, we can put that awareness into action. Folks in California can vote #YesOnProp57, and end the power of prosecutors to direct file kids into the adult court. In other states, voters can choose who prosecutes and/or judges our youth in courts of law, as well as legislators to pass and Governors to sign laws that reform flawed youth justice practices.

Second: Tell your Senator to vote to update the Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).
The JJDPA has been providing support for our country’s youth for over 40 years, and the new version (which has already passed in the U.S. House), will do even more to set standards and protections for youth in state juvenile justice programs. Tuesday, Nov 15. Call Sen McConnell 202-224-2541 and Sen Reid 202-224-3542 and ask them to pass JJDPA this Congress!

Let’s close #YJAM 2016 with a bang, by taking action in these two very important ways!

Guest Column: Empowering the Unheard

Rahim Buford, Organizer for the Child Defense Fund, The Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth Monday, 31 October 2016 Posted in Campaigns

By Rahim Buford, Organizer for the Child Defense Fund, The Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth

I spend my days working to reform our justice system and volunteering in prisons and juvenile detention centers because my experience is similar to that of many youth who enter of justice system.

When I was 18, I was sentenced to life in prison, plus 20 years after I was convicted of felony murder. Despite the horror of that situation, my story neither begins nor ends with it.

As a child, I experienced poverty, neglect and emotional longing. During my years in prison, I sought forgiveness for the hurt I caused and transformed my life to make sure that I could live positively while incarcerated and that if I ever came home, I could make a positive contribution to society.

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As Youth Justice Awareness Month draws to a close, I share my story as a reminder that none of us can be defined only by the worst thing we have done. That is why I continue to advocate for an end to the practice of sentencing children to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Although 17 states now ban these sentences, my home state of Tennessee still allows it. Rep. Jeremy Faison and Sen. Doug Overbey introduced legislation earlier this year that would have brought Tennessee in line with these states, but the State Assembly failed to pass it. When the 2017 legislative session convenes on January 10, they will have another opportunity to make sure we don’t sentence our children to die in prison. I invite all Tennessee residents to join me in contacting our legislative officials and encouraging them to act.

My story is similar to that of many youth who enter our justice system. I and two of my four siblings were born to a single mother and lived in poverty during our early childhood. I lived with my mother and two older brothers for a few years but spent most of my early days with my grandmother. I have only vague memories of my ‘daddy.’

My life against the grain began when I followed my two older brothers into stores to shoplift bubble gum. We were not bad kids; we were misguided and emotionally under-nourished. Mom did not hug or kiss us, and we were conditioned not to cry. I also remember being ashamed to go to school for fear that other kids would ridicule me for wearing cheap clothes and off-brand shoes. Stealing was our way of evening out the odds, a way not to be poor, a way to hustle and get money.

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The crimes I committed got bigger over time. When I was 16, I was sent to juvenile detention after I was arrested for car theft. My grandmother, who had been a mother figure to me, passed away while I was there. When I was released, I moved in with my mother and her husband. I was in need of therapy for my anguish and grief over the loss of my grandmother, but never received it.

After a bad fight with my stepdad during my senior year of high school, I left my home with resentment towards my mother and moved in with a friend. My friend was financially over-extended and had just filed for bankruptcy. Only a month after moving in with him, we were told that we were going to be evicted unless we could pay our rent. Faced with the prospect of living on the streets, as going back home was not an option, I hastily decided to commit a robbery. During the robbery, the gun that I had purchased for my own protection went off and the bullet ricocheted off of the floor and struck a man in his side; he died two days later. I was charged with felony murder and sentenced to life plus 20 years in prison.

I found myself, and my voice, while caged in prison. During the 26 years I spent there, I reached out to the victim’s family and asked for their forgiveness. I transformed my life. I also had a family reunion in prison as the impact of incarceration swept through my family. Over time, I was incarcerated alongside five of my brothers; I was cellmates with three of them.

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I prayed, meditated, created educational programs, challenged my peers to hold themselves accountable, and freed myself through creativity. Prison volunteers and their compassion in solidarity with prisoners saved my life. I was healed through community love. Empowered by the resurrection of my humanity, I founded the Unheard Voices Outreach, advocating justice for juveniles and adult prisoners. On any given Wednesday these days, you’ll find me at the juvenile detention facilitating critical reading, listening, thinking, and dialogue pedagogy. When you know where pain is concentrated, behind walls and razor wire fences, you do what you can to help. I help give voice to pain in pursuit of liberty for the unheard voices. I know how important that is because my voice was once unheard, too.

Alternatives to Youth Incarceration: New Report Calls for the End of Youth Prisons

By Jeree Thomas, CFYJ Policy Director Friday, 28 October 2016 Posted in Federal Update

By Jeree Thomas, CFYJ Policy Director

“We do not need these huge facilities because all they do is break us down.”  Da’Quon Beaver, a community organizer for the RISE for Youth Campaign, recounted his experience of incarceration in several of Virginia’s large youth prisons on a panel held at the Department of Justice on Friday, October 21st. 

The panel discussion was preceded by a presentation of a new report entitled, The Future of Youth Justice: A Community-Based Alternative to the Youth Prison Model.  The report was written in collaboration between the Harvard Kennedy School and the National Institute of Justice.  It documents not only the failure of the youth prison model, but several state campaigns around the country to replace the model with community-based programs and placements for youth. 

The report and panel discussion highlighted the human and economic costs of youth incarceration, the racial inequity that currently plagues the model, and a path for replacing the youth prison model.

The rise of the large youth prison model was in part a response to the debunked 1990s theory of “juvenile super predators,” who think, function, and commit crimes in heartless ways that are no different than adults.  As a result, youth prisons were built and are currently run like adult prisons.  Youth are held in solitary confinement.  Education and vocational opportunities are non-existent and those that do exist tend to be low quality.  Connection to families and community support systems are tenuous, and the combination of these factors inhibits the true development of healthy decision-making and critical thinking skills.  On average, states across the country spend $146,302 per year to incarcerate one youth in a large youth prison, and the return for this investment is a 70-80 percent re-arrest rate within two to three years of a youth’s release from a youth prison. 

In addition to a lack of rehabilitative and developmental resources for youth in prisons there is also widespread abuse and neglect. 1 in 8 youth have experienced sexual violence and other physical abuse in these facilities.  The youth exposed not only to incarceration, but to this abuse are disproportionately youth of color.  According to the report, black youth were incarcerated at 4.7 times the rate of white youth, Native American youth were incarcerated at 3.3 times the rate of white youth, and Latino youth were incarcerated at 1.7 times the rate of white youth.    

The inherent structural issues with youth prisons have led to the development of a four-pronged approach to change the youth justice system: reduce, reform, replace and reinvest.  

States can reduce their youth prison population by limiting the type of offenses that can result in commitment to a youth prison.  For example, eliminating commitment eligibility of youth with only misdemeanor offenses.  States can also reduce the length of time that youth remain in youth prisons by updating their statute, regulations, or guidelines governing the length of stay for youth in these prisons. 

Secondly, states can reform their youth justice system by emphasizing community-based and family-centered program alternatives to incarceration.  There are evidence-based programs that produce better outcomes for youth, are less expensive than incarceration, and reduce out of home placements in a way that is far more beneficial than placement in a youth prison. 

The third prong is to replace large youth prisons with smaller, home-like placements that are closer and more integrated into communities. 

Finally, the fourth prong is to reinvest funding from closing large youth prisons into rehabilitating and treating youth in their homes and communities. 

As one of the report’s authors highlighted at the presentation, America is at a true moment of opportunity.  We know what “breaks” youth down, what increases recidivism, and reduces public safety, and we have the knowledge and, in a growing number of states, the political will to stop doing what does not work.  Dismantling the inherently flawed youth prison model and replacing the model with community-based and preferably community-driven, family-oriented programming will make all the difference in the lives of our youth and our communities.  

Guest Column: Redeemed Juveniles Like Me Are Not the Exceptions

Xavier McElrath Bay Thursday, 20 October 2016 Posted in Campaigns

Youth Justice Advocate, The Campaign for Fair Sentencing of Youth

By Xavier McElrath Bay, Youth Justice Advocate, The Campaign for Fair Sentencing of Youth

Today is special for me for several reasons.

For starters, I will have the honor of spending much of the day in a symposium at San Quentin State Prison in California. I especially look forward to sharing time with the members of KID C.A.T. (Creating Awareness Together), a group of individuals who were sentenced to life without parole when they were children. After years of incarceration, they created their own support group with a mission to organize acts of community service and goodwill.

During my first two visits to San Quentin earlier this year, I learned about the group’s past activities, which have included conducting food and hygiene product drives for the homeless, fundraising to sponsor youth involvement in community programs, raising awareness and money for cancer research, and folding hundreds of origami hearts for kids at Oakland’s Children’s Hospital. All these activities took place behind the walls of San Quentin and were facilitated by people once considered to be heartless, remorseless monsters as a result of the now-disproven “superpredator theory.”

I am not surprised by their efforts. I recognize that their actions are the reflections of an eternal apology that I, too, am living out. Fourteen years ago today, at age 26, I walked out of the prison gates with a remorseful heart and a mission to advocate on behalf of children who are exposed to violence and the justice system. After pleading guilty to murder, I had been incarcerated half of my life.

Today, I hope to inspire KID C.A.T. members to continue their good deeds and to know in their hearts that they too can create a positive legacy of their lives.

Fortunately, because of recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and California legislation, including SB 9, SB 260 and SB 261 (and the potential passage of Proposition 57), they too now have an opportunity to be considered for release. Rather than living an existential nightmare until they die, they are planning for what their lives will look like in free society.

Spending the anniversary of my release from prison at San Quentin also feels special because October is Youth Justice Awareness Month (YJAM), which was started to increase awareness, strengthen coalitions and build campaigns to keep children out of adult prisons. The moment a child is charged as an adult, he or she is exposed to the possibility of extreme consequences — the worst of which was once the death penalty and is now life without parole. Pope Francis has referred to life sentences “a hidden death penalty.”

We have seen significant progress in the movement to end life without parole for children as courts and state legislatures have responded to adolescent brain research and evolving standards regarding how children should be treated in the justice system. The number of states that ban the sentence has more than tripled in the last three years. Therefore, hundreds of people throughout the country who were condemned as children to die in prison — and their families — now have hope.

We also know — and research documents — that too many children who enter the justice system and are charged with serious crimes hardly had a chance to succeed in the first place. As someone who experienced severe abuse and neglect during most of my young life, I can relate.

As a child, I endured beatings from my father, two stepfathers, a foster mother and police officers. My family often went without food and other necessities; we were frequently evicted; and my siblings and I were helpless as we watched our mother and brother struggle with schizophrenia and depression that went undiagnosed for many years.

At 11, I ran away and joined a gang. Blinded by the illusions of love and a new family, I almost lost my life that same year when my best friend shot me in my face by accident. At age 13, my life took a horrible turn when I played a role in the loss of another child’s life. His name was Pedro Martinez.

By then, I had already been arrested 19 times and had seven convictions. The judge in my case said I was incorrigible and would never change. He immediately transferred me to the adult criminal court.

Despite the horrible things that were said about me, my public defender believed in me and worked to make sure I could have a meaningful opportunity for release. I was eventually sentenced to spend 25 years in prison. It was a long sentence, but at least I knew in my heart that I could be free someday. During the first years I was in prison, I continued to make poor decisions and mistakes. But I eventually grew up, earned college degrees and dedicated my life to Pedro’s memory.

Since my release, I have worked to prevent violence in my community and to reform sentencing policies that ignore children’s capacity for positive change. As youth justice advocate with the Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth (CFSY), I now often speak with policymakers, judges, attorneys, law enforcement officials and others, reminding them that no child is born bad and that we are all more than the worst thing we have ever done.

I am also a co-founder and proud member of the Incarcerated Children’s Advocacy Network (ICAN), an initiative of CFSY that brings together leaders who were incarcerated as youth to advocate on behalf of children in the justice system. Like KID C.A.T., we also aspire to help others and change the narrative of incarcerated youth. It is the hope of ICAN to be able to embrace members of KID C.A.T. upon their release.

We are not the exceptions. On the contrary, we are what you can expect when children are given a chance to grow, thrive and lead redemptive lives. Whether we are seeking to change the world or to simply live normal lives and be good citizens, an undeniable truth exists within us: We are not the same people we were when we were children. #NoChildIsBornBad

Guest Column: Youth Justice Awareness Month: Transforming Awareness into Action

Jody Kent Lavy Thursday, 20 October 2016 Posted in Campaigns

Executive Director, The Campaign for Fair Sentencing of Youth

By Jody Kent Lavy, Executive Director of the Campaign for Fair Sentencing of Youth

October is Youth Justice Awareness Month — as proclaimed by President Obama — and we are celebrating and honoring all of the hard work of community leaders, advocates, coalition builders, legislative champions, judicial officials, defenders, and directly impacted individuals who seek to ensure that our country holds children accountable in age-appropriate ways that account for their experiences with trauma and their capacity to grow and change.

Our partners at the Campaign for Youth Justice started Youth Justice Awareness Month in 2008 to draw attention to the need to end the prosecution of youth in the adult criminal justice system. As awareness has grown, so have opportunities to create change, so the founders have decided to focus this year and in the future on transforming awareness into action. We are thrilled to join them in their efforts.

Despite the ongoing efforts of advocates, litigators and others throughout the county, children are still prosecuted as adults, and often are sentenced to life without parole and other extreme punishments. When we sentence children to die in prison, we ignore what adolescent brain science tells us and how that has impacted several recent decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court: Children are different from adults, both physically and developmentally. Children are less able to think through the long-term consequences of their actions, control their impulses or avoid pressure from peers or adults. Because they are still developing, they also possess a unique capacity to grow and change. In fact, we know that most children grow out of illegal behaviors by the time they reach their late 20s.

Thankfully, we are moving toward a justice system that less punitive in its dealings with children. In the last decade, the U.S. Supreme Court has significantly scaled back the use of the most extreme sentences for children, and has required opportunities for review for everyone sentenced as a child to a mandatory life-without-parole sentence. The Court also has said that these death-in-prison sentences are appropriate only when it can be proven that a child is irredeemable.

In addition, 17 states now ban these sentences for children. This includes both traditionally conservative states such as West Virginia and Nevada as well as traditionally liberal states such as Hawaii and Massachusetts.
Yet, our work is not done. We must ensure that all of these court and policy decisions are implemented in meaningful ways to provide everyone serving one of these sentences with a reasonable opportunity for release.

Throughout October, we will share commentaries of directly impacted individuals. We hope that you will be moved and inspired by their testimonies.

Thank you for your partnership as we work to ensure that no child is ever condemned to die in prison and all children are given a second chance.

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