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  • Bill Number: 5746 – WIN!

    Type of Reform

    Transfer Reform - Eliminated the “once an adult” rule where the youth was found not guilty. In the same year, the legislature also amended the automatic transfer provision to allow a youth to be transferred back to juvenile court upon agreement of the defense and prosecution without requiring a reduction of the charge.

    Year: 2009

  • Bill Number: 1187

    Type of Reform

    Sentencing Reform - eliminates the application of mandatory minimum sentences to youth tried as adults

    Year: 2005

  • Bill Number: SB 5064

    Type of Reform

    Sentencing Reform - Abolished JLWOP

    Year: 2014


  • Prevention v. Punishment: Threat Assessment, School Suspensions, and Racial Disparities

    This report (2013) presents new evidence that the implementation of Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines (VSTAG) in Virginia public schools is associated with marked reductions in both short-term and long-term school suspensions. Furthermore, use of VSTAG is associated with reductions in the racial disparity in long-term suspensions. Schools using VSTAG have substantially lower rates of school suspensions, especially among black males, who tend to have the highest suspension rates.

  • Educate Every Child: Promoting Positive Solutions to School Discipline in Virginia

    This report (2011) highlights that too many students are suspended for minor misbehavior in Virginia, and that school exclusion hurts everyone. High suspension rates are associated with low student achievement, high dropout rates, and increased contact with the juvenile justice system. Failure to maintain a positive school climate for all students can lead to teacher dissatisfaction and turnover. It argues that we can reduce the costs to society of high dropout, crime, and teacher attrition by adopting more effective approaches to managing challenging behavior in schools. Virginia should replace school exclusion with more effective alternatives.

  • The Effectiveness of Declining Juvenile Court Jurisdiction of Youth

    The Effectiveness of Declining Juvenile Court Jurisdiction of Youth (2013) by the Washington State Institute of Public Policy examines the effectiveness of the law that prevents youths from being held in juvenile institutions. This is proclaimed through a cost-benefit analysis to help understand what long-term financial impacts of programs and policies to society and others.

  • Educating Juveniles in Adult Jails

    Educating Juveniles in Adult Jails (2013)  by Katherine A. Carlson and Michelle M. Maike offers suggestions and guidelines for the development and operation of education programs for youth under 18 who are in adult jails.